Green Lake 4 Resources


The most frequently sampled lake in our database is Green Lake 4 in the Silver Lakes Watershed at the Niwot Ridge Long-Term Ecological Research Site (NWTLTER) near Boulder, Colorado.

The following resources are included below.

To see lake description, photos, maps, taxa, samples counted, etc... visit the main Green Lake 4 page

Green Lake 4. Looking upvalley to the west/southwest (2006-06-29). Silver Lakes Watershed, Colorado. Photo: NWT-LTER Researcher

Protocol Manual

A document outlining monitoring methods and standard operating procedures (SOPs). Contents include:Sampling, Filtering, Analysis, and Calculations

Green Lakes Valley Limnological Protocol Manual (4 Mb PDF)


A table created by Tisza Bell that cross references taxa in this database with lettered morphotypes.

Taxa ID Website Name Mor earlier identification by
Dufford or Flanagan
Taxa Group
used by Bell
1126 Synedra sp. N Synedra famelica +
Synedra sp.
Synedra spp.
1130 Fragilaria sp. AC Fragilaria sp. "
1131 Unknown bacilariophyte AH   Bacillariophyte spp.
2016 Chlorella minutissima G Chlorella minutissima Chlorella spp.
2017 Chlorella sp. I Chlorella sp.
2019 Chlorococcum sp. T Chlorococcum sp. "
2024 Sphaerocystis sp. CS Coenochloris polycocca "
2046 Monomastix sp. MX Monomastix sp. "
2064 Raphidocelis microscopica L Raphidocelis microscopica "
2067 Scenedesmus ecornis J Scenedesmus ecornis "
2084 Ankyra sp. #1 A Ankyra judayi Ankyra spp.
2087 Ankyra sp. #2 M Ankyra sp.
2085 Chlamydomonas sp. #1 E Chlamydomonas sp. Chlamydomonas spp.
2086 Chlamydomonas sp. #2 D Chlamydomonas sp.
2088 unknown chlorophyte UNK CHL Chlorophyte spp. "
3003 Chromulina sp. AE Chromulina sp. "
3007 Chrysococcus sp. R Chrysococcus sp. "
3019 Dinobryon sp. K Dinobryon sp. "
4013 Plagioselmis sp. #2 U Plagioselmis sp. Plagioselmis spp.
4014 Plagioselmis sp. #1 AF Plagioselmis nannoplanctica
5029 Rhabdoderma sp. B Rhabdoderma sp. "
5035 Cyanophyte sp. C Aphanocapsa delicatissima Cyanophyte spp.
Aphanothece clathrata
Aphanothece minutissima
Cyanophyte spp.
Dactyloccoccopsis sp.
Oscillatoria limnetica
Rhabdogoea scenedesmoides
7001 Chrysochromulina sp. AI Chrysochromulina sp. "
8009 Pyrrophyte sp. AK Pyrrophyte sp. "
9001 Ciliata AJ Unknown heterotroph  


Links, including Environmental Data


Bell, T.A. (2009). A shift in diatom composition due to increased weathering and nitrogen deposition. Thesis (M.S.)--University of Colorado, 69 p.. | Abstract

Flanagan, C.M. (2007). Understanding alpine watersheds in the Colorado Front Range: Phytoplankton community analysis and watershed education. Thesis (M.S.)--University of Colorado, 117 p.. | Abstract

Gardner, E. M., McKnight, D. M., Lewis, W. M., and Miller, M. P (2008). Effects of Nutrient Enrichment on Phytoplankton in an Alpine Lake, Colorado, USA. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research, 40(1): 55-64.. DOI: 10.1657/1523-0430(07-002)[GARDNER]2.0.CO;2 | Abstract

Gardner, E.M., (2003). Effects of nutrient enrichment on phytoplankton in an alpine lake, Green Lakes Valley, Colorado, U.S.A.. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Colorado, 52 p..

Kolesar, S., McKnight, D., & Waters, S. (2002). Late fall phytoplankton dynamics in three lakes, Rocky Mountain National Park. Hydrobiologia, Volume 472, 249-263. DOI: 10.1023/A:1016342007124 | Abstract

McKnight, D. M., Brenner, M., Smith, R. L. & Baron, J., (1986). Seasonal changes in phytoplankton populations and related chemical and physical characteristics in lakes in Loch Vale, RMNP, CO. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report, 86–4101. 64 pp..

McKnight, D. M., Miller, C., Smith, R. L. , Baron, J. A., & Spaulding, S. A. (1988). Phytoplankton population in lakes in Loch Vale, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado: Sensitivity to acidic conditions and nitrate enrichment. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report, 88–4115. 102 pp.. | Abstract

Waters, S., McKnight, D., Wolfe, A., Vinebrooke, R., Sundermann, S., O'Brien, M., Williams, M., Roche, A. (0). Algal and Biochemical Responses to Environmental Change in an Alpine Lake. to be submitted. | Abstract

Waters, S.B., (1999). Responses of algal communities to environmental change in an alpine lake, Green Lakes Valley, Colorado.. Thesis (M.S.)--University of Colorado, 132 p..